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MOSCOW
24-04-2006 Moscow is the capital of the Russian Federation
Moscow is the capital of the Russian Federation, and the business, scientific, cultural and tourist center of the country.
It is reckoned among the biggest cities of the world. Its population equals to ten million and a half people.
The first mention of Moscow dates back to 1147. The city was founded by prince Yury Dolgorukiy (Long-armed). Fast development of Moscow was promoted by its favorable geographical position at a crossing of major trading ways. In the 15thcentury Moscow became the main political and cultural center of the Russian lands. In that time the city became virtual center of the Russian orthodoxy. There was a doctrine on transformation of Moscow to the "Third Rome". It was connected with the version that the lineage of the Moscow grand dukes started with the emperors of Rome. It entrusted Moscow sovereigns with a special messiahn task. They were considered as protectors of the "big" orthodoxy and patrons of all the orthodox. Moscow was the capital of Russia till the 18th century and retrieved later its status in 1918.
Today Moscow is one of the most beautiful capital of the world. Its architectural appearance has been formed in the course of many centuries. Till the 18thcentury the city was for the most part wooden and suffered many times from conflagrations. Later the stone buildings took the places of the wooden houses. Every epoch in the Russian history till the present days finds its reflection in the modern look of the city and in the character of its architecture.
The majority of tourists excursions on seesights of Moscow starts with the Kremlin. The Kremlin is the central and most ancient part of the city situated at the bank of the Moskva river. The first kremlin was built here 1156. The Kremlin of red bricks come into being here at the end of the 15thcentury. Russian Tsars were living there and Russian emperors were crowned. All the population of Moscow was comming to Kremlin for religious feasts.
The greatest monuments of historical and architectural complex of Kremlin are the Assumption Cathedral, the Ivan the Great Bell-Tower, the Faceted Chamber and the Armoury Chamber, where the valuable treasures heritable by Russian Tsars and Princes are kept. There is the Red Square -the most important historical place and symbol of Moscow and Russia situated at the foot of Kremlin ramparts. The Saint Basil Cathedral located on the southern part of Red Square is one of the most beautiful monuments of architecture in the world.
Great number of churches adorn Moscow. Many churches destroyed or abandoned in the Soviet time were restored within the last fifteen years. The main object of religious Moscow is the recreated Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. Real treasures of architecture are the Epiphany Cathefral in Yelokhovo, Church of all the Saints na Kuliskah, the Saint-Trinity church in Nikitniki and many others.
New Maiden Convent, Don's monastery, New Saviour and St. Daniel's monasteries enchant the tourists by the harmony of their architecture complexes. City estates and palace-and-park ensembles of the 18lh—19th centures - Kolomenskoye, Izmaylovo, Kuskovo and Ostankino - also form the image of Moscow. In the soviet period the view of Moscow was dominated by famous Moscow skyscrapers built after World War II: Moscow State University, Ministry of foreign affaires and the others.
Today's Moscow is a dynamically changing and eclectic city where the history and the present are deeply intertwined. With the begining of the 90"1 years of the 20 century the city starts to change drasticaty. There are many new buildings constructed, new streets, avenues created, beatiful bridges build and gardens planted. However the spirit of is living in the walls of ancient monuments and gives the city the look of a special nobless.
Moscow is a cultural center of global value. There are more than 70 theatres here. The best known of them is Bolshoi Theatre. Performances of Bolshoy Theatre are of great popularity among classic art-fanciers all over the world. Well-known are also Maly theatre, Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko Moscow academic Music Theater, Mayakovsky theatre, theatres "Lenkom" and "Satirikon". There are dozzens of concert halls, cinemas and exhibition centers in the city.
The richest collections of painting, graphic art and sculpture are gathered in nearly hundred museums. Among them are the well-known Tretyakov picture gallery and the Pushkin Museum of fine arts. The richest collection of Russian painters canvas is gathered in the well-known Tretyakov. Among them are Repin, Serov, Vasetsov, Bryulov, Levitan. picture gallery and the Pushkin Museum of fine arts. Exhibitions and festivals of modern art are frequent visitors of Moscow exhibition halls.
The environs of Moscow are also rich in cultural, historical and natural monuments. Old towns of Sergiev Posad, Zvenigorod, Serpukhov, Kolomna, most beautiful monasteries and palaces situated near Moscow attract more and more tourists every year. There is the country estate Arkhangelskoye situated in the environ of Moscow. It is a very beatiful park and architecture ensemble of the 18-19 centuries. The Resurrection New Jerusalem monastery is lokated close to the town Istra of Moscow region. It is a unique phenomenon in Russian culture and it contains a lot of treasures of history and art. The main idea of its founder-reformer of Russian Orthodox Church - Patriarch Nikon {1605-1681} was to recreate near Moscow on Isatra river analogue of Sacred Earth - "Russian Palestine" - with the exact model of the Holy Sepulchre Cathedral. There are also Sion, Faber and Eleon, the Hoffsman Garden and Kidron.
Modern Moscow is the biggest center of business tourism. It is a city of congresses, forums, festivals, industrial exhibitions and fairs. They are hold on the vast fairgrounds of Moscow exhibition centers, and there are more than ten of them in the city. Annualy there are international tourist fairs organized in Moscow. With regard to the quantity of exponents and visitors they became during last years one of the biggest international tourist fairs in the world.


        
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Автопутешествие по Средней Азии. 27.06.2008 – 02.08.2008. Памир - Алтай 2008.Средняя Азия 2008. Россия – Казахстан (Аральское море, Малое море) – Узбекистан (Ташкент, озеро Чарвак, Самарканд, Бухара) – Таджикистан (Душанбе, Хорог, Памир) – Киргизстан (Бишкек, озеро Иссык-Куль) – Казахстан (Алма-Ата, озеро Балхаш) – Россия (Алтай, озеро Телецкое). Более 16.000. км, 37 дней.

Фотохронология поездки Средняя Азия. Памир - Алтай 2008.
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